But he's nervous. “I'm here to tell you today why you should ...should ...” Chris trips on the “ld，” a pronunciation difficulty for many nonnative English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley，is next to him，whispering support.“...Vote for ...me ...”Except for some stumbles，Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.
[分析] 选文属于“具体事例型段落”。本段中使用了you should ...should ... 及Vote for ...me ...具体事例，介绍了Chris的演讲不流畅，演讲时有不适当的停顿。目的是为了证明本段的主旨：But he's nervous.。
这种段落最常见的就是按时间分类说明或按某一特性分类说明。针对这种段落，要特别留意段落中的过渡词，比如，above all, in addition, finally等等。
Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by huntergatherers, small, tightly knit (联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10，000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12，000 languages between them.
Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nationstate and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.
[分析] 从节选的这两段可以看出，这篇说明文按时间顺序讲述了随着人类社会的发展，很多语言逐渐消失。其中体现时间顺序的词语有：When the world was still populated by huntergatherers；10，000 years ago；Soon afterwards; In recent centuries; in the past few decades等，由这些时间标志词可以看出随着时间的推移，语言的数量在逐渐减少，从而印证了文章的主题句：Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going。
Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday.
While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children's lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading.
According to the report's key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13yearolds and 9 percent of 17yearolds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.”
The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2－8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session has declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session.
When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of ereaders and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading, mainly due to concerns about increased screen time.
The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read.
As the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom (逼近) ahead, parents might take this chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore.
The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next year，half of the calls we receive will be scams (欺诈)．We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools，apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately，it's too little，too late. By the time these “solutions (解决方案)” become widely available，scammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near future，it's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.
That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conference，a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing humansounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.
These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵入) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's name，and far more. Armed with this knowledge，they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means，for example，that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller's，tricking you into “confirming” your address，mother's name，and card number. Scammers follow money，so companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phone，and much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.
We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images，showing when and who they were made by，or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards databased communications —using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.
Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose，and the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.
转折型的段落内容一分为二，前半部分是一种观点，而后面的转折之后才是作者想要强调的关键。无论前面你觉得怎样正确，都要记得转折后才是关键。因此阅读这种段落时，把更多的注意力要放在转折后的内容上。这种段落往往有很明显的转折标志词，如but, yet, however, instead等等。因此还是比较好识别的。根据对历年真题的分析，我们发现正确答案往往出现在转折后。因此希望大家重视这样的转折标志词，有详略的来阅读这样的段落。
Preparing Cities for Robot Cars
①The possibility of selfdriving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist's dream, years away from materializing in the real world. ②Well, the future is apparently now. ③The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly selfdriving cars on public roads. ④The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out selfdriving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. ⑤California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. ⑥Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. ⑦It's hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. ⑧But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.