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理清“文架构”,具备读快之“情思”

来源: 发布时间:2020-10-20 浏览次数: 【字体:

理解文章的基本结构是高考大纲对英语阅读能力的一项基本要求。文章的逻辑结构是文章重要的内在特征了解篇章段落的逻辑结构对提高阅读理解的准度和速度有着不可估量的作用。因此在平时的阅读理解训练中要强化领悟段落、篇章结构及行文逻辑内在规律长此以往内化于心潜移默化形成读文的内在情思这个情思就是指与文章情感思路一致的、默契的思维流动。具备了这种情思快读、精读文章就达到了一种至高境界。

()记叙文中的具体事例型段落

——抓住此事例围绕的观点

这种类型的段落整段都在讲具体事例。往往这个事例本身并不重要而作者是为了证明自己的某个观点才讲了这样一个事例。因此考生要站在宏观的角度把握这个事例证明了什么观点或者说明了哪一方面。它的特点就是会有特别具体的描述词比如某个人名多次被提到而且用到的动词也都是一些表示具体动作的动词而不是观点动词。

[] (2019·全国卷阅读B节选)

But he's nervous. I'm here to tell you today why you should ...should ...” Chris trips on the ­ld a pronunciation difficulty for many non­native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaleyis next to himwhispering support....Vote for ...me ...”Except for some stumblesChris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.

[分析] 选文属于具体事例型段落。本段中使用了you should ...should ... Vote for ...me ...具体事例介绍了Chris的演讲不流畅演讲时有不适当的停顿。目的是为了证明本段的主旨:But he's nervous.

()说明文中的对比型段落

——分清层次最重要

这种段落最常见的就是按时间分类说明或按某一特性分类说明。针对这种段落要特别留意段落中的过渡词比如above all, in addition, finally等等。

[] (2018·全国卷阅读C节选)

[1]Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter­gatherers, small, tightly knit (联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12000 languages between them.

[2]Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation­state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

[分析] 从节选的这两段可以看出这篇说明文按时间顺序讲述了随着人类社会的发展很多语言逐渐消失。其中体现时间顺序的词语有:When the world was still populated by hunter­gatherers10000 years agoSoon afterwards; In recent centuries; in the past few decades由这些时间标志词可以看出随着时间的推移语言的数量在逐渐减少从而印证了文章的主题句:Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going

()议论文中的总分型段落分总型段落

——一定要找到并读懂主旨句

总分型段落排列在一开始就给出了作者的观点或者要说明的主要内容。后面的大部分都在论证这个观点或者进行细节上的说明。针对这种类型的语篇考生应该做到细读主旨段落略读细节段落以读懂主旨为要务。考生会发现文后的题目大都围绕主旨而命题而偏离主旨的大都是干扰项而不是正确答案。

分总型段落排列在开始和中间都是一些细节型的内容有时是平行的细节有时是层层递进但一直到语篇的最后一段才点出最重要的观点或结论。显然读这种语篇的落脚点应该在结尾处。跟总分型的语篇相比,分总型的语篇有时更耗时间去发现主旨,因此考生们平时做题的时候要多去体会,争取在最短的时间找到主旨。

[] (2018·全国卷阅读C)

[1]Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday.

[2]While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children's lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading.

[3]According to the report's key findings, the proportion (比例) who say they hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13­year­olds and 9 percent of 17­year­olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.

[4]The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 28, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session has declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session.

[5]When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of e­readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading, mainly due to concerns about increased screen time.

[6]The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read.

[7]As the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom (逼近) ahead, parents might take this chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore.

[行文脉络]

第一层(1)

开篇点题交代了常识媒体的报告内容——儿童阅读习惯

第二层(2)

点明儿童阅读的总体状况

三层(34)

用数据论证儿童快乐阅读的情况

第四层(56)

论述家长在儿童阅读中的干预与示范作用

第五层(7)

建议家长利用暑期引领儿童阅读

 

()议论文中的总分总型段落

——关键是弄清楚文章的论点及结论

这种类型的段落排列是议论文常用的结构方式,总分总的结构是先抛出文章的中心思想,再分层叙述,逐层深入,最后对文章加以总结。即开头提出论点(开门见山);中间若干分论点;结尾总括论点(或重申论点,或总结引申论点),而几个分论点之间可以是并列关系、层递关系、对比关系等,但不能是包含关系或交叉关系。

[] (2019·北京高考阅读C)

[1]The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next yearhalf of the calls we receive will be scams (欺诈)We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of toolsapps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunatelyit's too littletoo late. By the time these solutions (解决方案) become widely availablescammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near futureit's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.

[2]That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation (处理) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use. At this year's I/O Conferencea company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human­sounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.

[3]These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that ro­bocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches (数据侵入) of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother's nameand far more. Armed with this knowledgethey're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This meansfor examplethat a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller'stricking you into confirmingyour addressmother's nameand card number. Scammers follow moneyso companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phoneand much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.

[4]We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and imagesshowing when and who they were made byor abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data­based communications using apps like FaceTime or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.

[5]Credibility is hard to earn but easy to loseand the problem is only going to get harder from here on out.

[行文脉络]

1

在文章首段提出论点:骚扰电话问题变得更加糟糕

2

原因一:分析新的声音处理和自动化技术可以给人们带来便利但是骚扰电话问题变得更加糟糕其原因是自动语音处理器和高科技技术的广泛使用

 

3

原因二:高科技让不法分子有了可乘之机

4

解决方案

5

照应主题:骚扰电话问题变得更加糟糕

 ()议论文中的转折型段落

——重点是看懂转折后的观点

转折型的段落内容一分为二前半部分是一种观点而后面的转折之后才是作者想要强调的关键。无论前面你觉得怎样正确都要记得转折后才是关键。因此阅读这种段落时把更多的注意力要放在转折后的内容上。这种段落往往有很明显的转折标志词but, yet, however, instead等等。因此还是比较好识别的。根据对历年真题的分析我们发现正确答案往往出现在转折后。因此希望大家重视这样的转折标志词有详略的来阅读这样的段落。

[] (2018·北京高考阅读D节选)

Preparing Cities for Robot Cars

The possibility of self­driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist's dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self­driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self­driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It's hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.

[行文脉络]

句叙述了无人驾驶机器人汽车将成为现实。句转折词But是整段甚至是全文的关键表明了作者的观点:无人驾驶汽车是将会更好还是更坏地改变我们的交通系统、改变我们的城市,这将取决于政策制定者如何规划、管理这项科技


终审 :应玲
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