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细节理解题——定位信息巧比对

来源: 发布时间:2020-10-20 浏览次数: 【字体:

 

()明考纲懂考查方式和考查角度

[考纲解读]

(1)文章细节对于理解全文内容至关重要同时也是归纳和概括文章中心思想的基础。

(2)命题人员会要求考生根据不同的要求阅读文章以获得某些特定的信息或准确地寻求所需的细节。

(3)这类试题有时比较直接理解字面意思即可答题;有时则较为间接需要归纳、概括和推理才能答题。细节理解题占阅读理解总题量的60%左右。

[考查特点]

.把握细节理解题的常见设问方式:

(1)特殊疑问句形式:以when, where, what, which, who, how much/many等疑问词开头引出的问题。

(2)空题形式:通常涉及与主题有关的事实或细节。

(3)就文中数字、排序等提问。

.明晰细节理解题的考查角度:

(1)高频考点:直接信息题;间接信息题。

(2)低频考点:数字计算题;正误判断题;细节排序题。

()细节理解题正确选项特征

同义替换

指对原文句子中的关键词进行同义替换。如把lose one's job换成了be out of work。有些细节理解题把原文中的一些词变换一下词性,如把important变换成of importance;改变原文中句子的语态如主动语态与被动语态的转换。

信息归纳

用精炼的语言来概括原文中比较分散或复杂的信息设置为正确答案。

正话反说

把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项。

原文原词

利用原文原词作为正确选项。

 

()细节理解题干扰选项特征

张冠李戴

是原文信息但不是题目要求的内容。

无中生有

符合常识但不是文章的内容。

曲解文意

与原文的内容极其相似只是在某个细节处有些变动。

颠倒是非

在意思上与原文大相径庭甚至完全相反。

正误参半

部分正确部分错误。

 

 

 

直接信息题

 

在解答直接信息题时考生可以采取关键词定位法带着问题找答案的方法通过定位找题眼。先从题干中提取关键性词语(题眼)然后以此为线索运用略读及寻读的技巧快速在文章中寻找与此关键词相关的段落、语句快速定位该题与哪一段哪一句有关然后仔细推敲仔细比较所给选项与文中细节的细微区别在准确理解细节的前提下,最后确定答案。解题流程图如下:

[] (2019·全国卷阅读A节选)

Jobs for Youth

If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible (符合条件) for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training.

Who is eligibleYouth 1518 years old in select communities (社区)

Summer Company

Summer Company provides students with hands­on business training and awards of up to $3000 to start and run their own summer businesses.

Who is eligibleStudents aged 1529, returning to school in the fall.

21What is special about Summer Company?

AIt requires no training before employment.

BIt provides awards for running new businesses.

CIt allows one to work in the natural environment.

DIt offers more summer job opportunities.

[解题示范]

第一步:定信息区间

抓关键

题干中的关键词:Summer Company

锁信息

定位:用special about Summer Company寻读在文中找到信息源Summer Company provides students with hands­on business training and awards of up to $3000 to start and run their own summer businesses.

第二步:比对定答案

选项

选项意思

定位

A

它在就业前不需要任何培训。

曲解文意

B

它为经营新企业提供奖励。

原文原词

C

它允许人们在自然环境中工作。

无中生有

D

它提供了更多的暑期工作机会。

曲解文意

[分析] 选B 比对选项和信息句可知Summer Company的特别之处在于 它为经营新业务提供奖励利用原文原词award定正确选项为直接细节理解题。故选B

 

 

间接信息题

 

间接信息题相比直接信息题命题的隐蔽性更强正确选项一般都会在原文基础上进行改造。此类题目需要考生将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的转换有时还需要进一步的加工或整理。

[] (2019·全国卷阅读C节选)

I prefer to go out and be out.Alone, but together, you know Bechtel said, looking up from her book.Bechtel, who works in downtown West Palm Beach, has lunch with coworkers sometimes, but like many of us, too often works through lunch at her desk.A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder.She returns to work feeling energized.Today, I just wanted some time to myselfshe said.

29Why does Bechtel prefer to go out for lunch?

ATo meet with her coworkers.

BTo catch up with her work.

CTo have some time on her own.

DTo collect data for her report.

[解题示范]

第一步:定信息区间

抓关键

题干中的关键词:prefer to go out lunch

锁信息

定位:用Bechtel prefer to go out for lunch寻读在文中找到信息源——Today, I just wanted some time to myself she said.

 

第二步:比对定答案

选项

选项意思

定位

A

去见她的同事。

张冠李戴

B

为了赶上她的工作。

张冠李戴

C

有自己的时间。

同义替换

D

为她的报告收集数据。

张冠李戴

[分析] C 根据信息句I just wanted some time to myself可知Bechtel更喜欢出去吃午饭的原因是想拥有自己的时间。原文中的wanted some time to myself被替换成选项中的have some time on her own为间接细节理解题。故选C

 

 

数字计算题

 

数字计算题要求考生在原文中找到有关的数字信息再对相关的信息和数字进行分析和理解利用加、减、乘、除等运算方法进行计算确定答案。解题流程图如下:

[] (2018·全国卷阅读C节选)

At present, the world has about 6800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1000; Africa 2400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6000, which means that half the world's languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

 30.How many languages are spoken by less than 6000 people at present?

AAbout 6800.   BAbout 3400.

CAbout 2400.   DAbout 1200.

[解题示范]

第一步:定信息区间

抓关键

题干中的关键词:less than 6000 people at present

锁信息

定位:用less than 6000 people at present寻读在文中找到信息源——The median number(中位数) of speakers is a mere 6000which means that half the world's languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

 

第二步:比对定答案

选项

选项意思

定位

A

大约 6 800

曲解文意

B

大约 3 400

信息归纳

C

大约2 400

张冠李戴

D

大约 1 200

张冠李戴

[分析] B 根据信息句The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6000which means that half the world's languages are spoken by fewer people than that.可知目前全球不同语言使用人数的中位数仅是6 000这就意味着世界上有一半的语言的使用人数不到6 000;结合At presentthe world has about 6800 languages.可知目前大约3 400种语言的使用人数不到6 000。故选B

 

 [课堂应用体验]

A

(2019·广州综合检测一)

Adult Education Courses

Computer Studies

Technology is advancing at a rapid pace, and we rely more and more on computers for everything from cooking to organising our taxes. This six­week course will give you an understanding of computer fundamentals, including the use of software packages (Word, Excel and PowerPoint) and how to use the Internet.

Start: May 22019

Time: Wed. 7 pm9 pm

Cost300

Length: 6 weeks

Place: Sydney College

Woodwork

Learn the basics of woodworking with simple handson projects to build your confidence and skills. Each lesson explores a different area of woodworking that will provide you with the skills needed for any woodworking project. Flexible learning allows you to choose only the lessons that interest you.

Start: April 15, 2019

TimeMon. 5 pm7 pm

Cost30 per lesson

Length: 12 weeks

Place: Adult Learning Centre

 

续表

Web Design

This course provides advanced training in software, design, and coding for the Web. Students must have already completed a recognised basic Web design course or have at least 2 years' relevant work experience. Students completing the course will receive the Diploma in Advanced Web Design.

Start: June 1, 2019

Time: Weekdays 9 am4 pm

Cost: 4990

Length: 40 weeks

Place: University of Technology

Art

This practical course is intended to help established (著名的) artists take their creativity further. From sketching and colour, to composition (构图), painting and experimenting with style, you will study and explore an engaging variety of creative media and subject matter.

Start: April 21, 2019

Time: Thur. 3 pm6 pm

Cost: 750

Length: 15 weeks

Place: City Art

语篇解读本文介绍了四门针对成年人教育的课程即计算机课程、木工手艺、网页设计和艺术。

1Which courses are suitable for beginners?

AWeb Design and Art.

BComputer Studies and Art.

CWoodwork and Web Design.

DComputer Studies and Woodwork.

解析:D 细节理解题。根据Computer Studies部分中的an understanding of computer fundamentals可知该课程提供计算机的基础内容;从Woodwork部分中的the basics of woodworking可知该课程提供木工手艺的基础内容。故选D

2Which course awards students an official certificate?

AArt. BWoodwork.

CWeb Design. DComputer Studies.

解析:C 细节理解题。根据Web Design部分中的Students completing the course will receive the Diploma in Advanced Web Design.可知该课程会给完成课程的学生颁发结业证书另外三门课程均未提到颁发证书C项符合题意。

3How much will a student who attends only half of all the Woodwork lessons pay in total?

A.$30. B.$180.

C.$250. D.$360.

解析:B 数字计算题。根据Woodwork部分中的Time: Mon. 5 pm7 pm可知该课程每周一开一次课;根据该部分中的30 per lesson可知每次课程要花费30美元;根据该部分中的Length: 12 weeks可知该课程持续1212次课。由此可知上全部课程需要30×12360上一半的课程需要180美元。

B

(2019·潍坊市统一考)When traveling on a budget, every dollar counts. Unfortunately, the cost of tickets alone can make a serious hole in your savings. Don't let that stop you from taking your dream vacation, though. According to Jeff Klee, CEO of CheapAir.com, there is a sweet spotto get the biggest bang for your buck.

The most important rule is fairly obvious: don't wait until the last minute, as that rarely works out he said in a statement. But beyond that, you also want to be careful not to buy too early.

Still, that's easier said than done. Finding the most cost­efficient time to book is tough. Luckily, somebody did the math so you don't have to. Data crunchers from the online travel agency CheapAir.com surveyed over 917 million fares to determine the day with the cheapest rates.

Here's what they found: while prices tend to stay the same between 320 and 106 days before a trip, they start dropping at the 105­day mark. That said, you might be tempted to book the moment prices drop. But hold on! You'll save even more money by booking precisely 70 days before your trip. According to CheapAir.com, you can save 48 percent of the ticket's total cost by using this trick. After that date, airfares will begin to increase again. And don't even think about booking any later than 20 days ahead of time, as prices will be soaring.

So, what are you waiting for? Start planning your next dream vacation, and book accordingly. Your wallet will thank you guaranteed.

语篇解读本文介绍了购买便宜飞机票的方法和策略。

4When can we book our plane tickets to save the most money?

AThe later, the better. BAs early as possible.

C105 days before our trip. D70 days before our trip.

解析:D 细节理解题。根据第四段的内容尤其是第四句You'll save even more money by booking precisely 70 days before your trip.可知旅行前第70天预订机票节省的钱最多故选D

5How much can the trick help us save if the ticket costs 400 totally?

A.$48. B.$192.

C.$208. D.$352.

解析:B 数字计算题。根据第四段第五句According to CheapAir.com, you can save 48 percent of the ticket's total cost by using this trick.并结合题干可知原价是400美元的飞机票总共可以节省:400*48%192故选B

6What's the purpose of the author in writing this text?

ATo explain what a sweet spotis.

BTo attract people to traveling by plane.

CTo show the ways of booking plane tickets.

DTo tell people how to buy cheap plane tickets.

解析:D 写作意图题。根据第一段第一句When traveling on a budget, every dollar counts.和对本文的整体理解可推知本文的主要目的在于介绍购买便宜飞机票的策略和方法故选D



终审 :应玲
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