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推理判断4

来源: 发布时间:2020-10-20 浏览次数: 【字体:

文章出处或读者对象类——语言特色推出处或读者对象

 

文章来源题要求考生具备一定的常识能够根据文章的体裁和题材来推断文章的出处或类别。读者对象推断题要求考生根据短文内容和文中的措辞推断文章的读者对象即作者预定的读者对象是什么人。

该类题型常见设问方式有:

From which is the text probably taken?

In which of the following would this passage most likely be found?

The passage is probably taken out of ________

Where would the passage most probably appear?

The passage is probably intended for ________

The text is written mainly for ________

Who are the intended readers of the passage?

[] (2019·全国卷阅读C节选)

As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量) technologies — like fingerprint scans — to keep others out of private e­spaces.At present, these technologies are still expensive, though.

Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low­cost device (装置) that gets around this problema smart keyboard.This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence (节奏) with which one types and the

pressure fingers apply to each key.The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses.These patterns are unique to each person.Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identitiesand by extensionwhether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to regardless of whether someone gets the password right.

31Where is this text most likely from?

AA diary. BA guidebook.

CA novel. DA magazine.

[解题示范]

细研题干

定题型

文章出处题。

文章内容

本文是一篇科研报道。来自佐治亚理工学院的研究人员发明了一种智能键盘可以通过分析用户的打字模式来判断该用户是不是安全访客。

章语气

根据本文的话题智能键盘以及第二段中的Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low­cost device ...尤其是其中的关键词researcherslow­cost device等来推断这篇文章是一篇科研报道。

确定答案

本文是介绍智能键盘的科研报道科研报道最有可能出现在杂志上。所以D项正确。

 

[技法点津]

从文章的内容或结构判断其出处:

1报纸:前面常会出现日期、地点或通讯社名称;

2广告:格式特殊容易辨认;

3产品说明:常含有操作方式、使用方法等;

4网页:常含有网页的典型用语如:click等。

[课堂应用体验]

A

(2019·大连高三一模)

Rich as a King

William who conquered England some 950 years ago, had wealth, power and an army. Yet although William was very rich by the standard of his time, he had nothing like a flush toilet (抽水马桶), paper towels, or a riding lawn mower (割草机). How did he get_by?

History books are filled with wealthy people who were poor compared to me. I have storm windows, Croesus did not. Entire nations trembled before Alexander the Great, but he couldn't buy cat food. Czar Nicholas lacked an electric saw.

Given how much better off I am than so many famous dead people, you'd think I'd be content. The trouble is that, like most people, I compare my wealth with that of living persons: neighbors, school classmates, famous TV people.  The greed I feel toward my friend Howard's new kitchen is not reduced by the fact that no kings ever had a refrigerator with glass doors.

There is really no rising or falling standard of living. Over the centuries people simply find different things to feel sad about. You'd think that simply not having disease would put us in a good mood, but no, we want a hot bath too.

Of course, one way to achieve happiness would be to realize that even by today's standards the things I own are pretty nice. My house is smaller than the houses of many investment bankers, but even so it has a lot more rooms than my wife and I can keep clean.

Besides, to people looking back at our era from a century or two in the future, these bankers' fancy counter tops and my own worn Formica will seem equally shabby. I can't keep up with my neighbors right now. But just wait.

语篇解读本文主要通过同富有的古人对比启迪读者:生活没有必要攀比要知足常乐。

1What does the underlined phrase get byin the first paragraph mean?

ASucceed as a king. BDeal with complaints.

CLive in a satisfactory way. DGet some extra money.

解析:C 词义猜测题。根据第三段第一句Given how much better off I am than so many famous dead people, you'd think I'd be content.并结合对第一段第二句的理解可推知没有现代这些便利的生活设备富有的威廉一世如何才能生活得称心如意呢?由此可推知画线短语表示以一种令人满意的方式生活故选C

2How many historical figures are mentioned to compare lives in the past and present?

A3. B4.

C5. D6.

解析:B 细节理解题。根据对第一段和第二段的理解可知古今生活对比中作者列举了四个历史人物他们分别是:William  Croesus, Alexander the GreatCzar Nicholas

3According to the passage, the author intends to ________

Atell us to be content with life

Bwarn us to live in a simple way

Cteach us to learn lessons from life

Dencourage us to struggle for wealth

解析:A 写作意图题。根据文章的标题Rich as a King并结合对全文的整体理解可推知作者通过古今生活对比告诉我们要知足常乐。

4What's the author's attitude towards life?

ADoubtful. BOptimistic.

CUncaring. DCautious.

解析:B 观点态度题。根据最后两段尤其是最后一段最后两句I can't keep up with my neighbors right now. But just wait.可推知作者对生活持乐观的态度。

B

(2019·安徽安庆二模)Spotify can tell if you're sad. Here's why that should scare you. Want to figure out if someone is a patient with a mental disabilityAsk them what their favorite song is. A New York University study last year found that people who loved Eminem's Lose Yourself and Justin Bieber's What Do You Mean? were more likely to have trouble with mental disabilities than people who were into Dire Straits.

Over the past few years, Spotify has been improving the ability to analyze  information  to  help  businessmen  target  consumers  with advertisements made specially for their needs. They conclude this from the sort of music you're listening to, combined with where and when you're listening to it, along with third­party data that might be available.

Now, to be clear, there's nothing significantly illegal about what Spotify is doing with your information. I certainly don't think that they are working with shadowy consulting firms to serve you ads selling a culture struggle while you're listening to music that suggests you might be in a terrible situation. However,  I find it disappointing that our personal,  private moments with music are increasingly being turned into information points and offered to advertisers.

You can see where this could go, can't you? As ad targeting gets ever more accurate, businessmen will have the ability to target our feelings in potentially improper ways. According to one study, you are more likely to spend more on a product if you're feeling sad. You can imagine some companies might take advantage of that. And on that note, I'm feeling a little down about all this. Head off to treat myself to something expensive.

语篇解读音乐服务平台Spotify能通过用户所听歌曲的类型来判断用户的心情,进而将用户的信息提供给商人,帮助他们锁定消费者,促其消费,这种行为导致作者对其非常失望。

5What's the purpose of the first paragraph?

ATo introduce a new song.

BTo draw readers' attention.

CTo help more patients.

DTo promote a new medium.

解析:B 推理判断题。作者以令人感兴趣的话题引入,吸引读者注意力,进而在第二段中提出主题,由此可知,第一段的目的是引起读者的兴趣,故选B项。

6Why does Spotify improve its ability to analyze information?

ATo provide services for the government.

BTo work with shadowy consulting firms.

CTo get listeners' personal information.

DTo help businessmen attract consumers.

解析:D 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句... Spotify has been improving the ability to analyze information to help businessmen target consumers with advertisements made specially for their needs.可知Spotify直在提高其分析信息的能力,其目的是帮助商人吸引消费者,故选D项。

7What's the author's attitude toward Spotify?

AUncertain. BSupportive.

CPositive. DDissatisfied.

解析:D 推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句However, I find it disappointing that ...和最后一段中的And on that note, I'm feeling a little down about all this.可知作者对Spotify很失望故选D项。

8Who is the text probably designed for?

AMusic lovers. BOfficials.

CResearchers. DManagers.

解析:A 推理判断题。根据第二段中的the sort of music you're listening to和第三段中的while you're listening to music可知本文主要针对音乐爱好者而写故选A项。

C

(2019·黑龙江省大庆市第一次质量检测)Many of us love summer because it's the season when vegetables are in abundance. Fresh vegetables have almost all of the nutrients that our body requires.

Fresh cabbage is an excellent source of natural vitamin C. It also contains an adequate number of minerals. Sweet carrot is notably rich in antioxidants (抗氧化物), vitamins and dietary fiber. Onion is a rich source of chromium (), a mineral that helps cells respond appropriately to insulin (胰岛素) levels in the blood. As for me, tomato, juicy and delicious, is a wonderful gift to the world. Besides, it contains very good levels of vitamin A and vitamin C, and antioxidants, which are scientifically found to be protective against cancers.

Eat at least 57 servings of fresh vegetables every day. Seasonal vegetables should be encouraged. Whenever possible, go for organic farm vegetables to get maximum health benefits. Organic ones tend to be smaller but have rich flavor, possess some good concentration of vitamins and minerals and are loaded with numerous health benefiting antioxidants.

After shopping your choice of vegetables, the first thing you need to do is to wash them thoroughly, especially leafy green vegetables. Soak in salt water for a few minutes, and gently wash in cool water until you are satisfied with the cleanliness. This way you insure they are free from dirt sand and any chemical sprays. If you need to store them,  then place inside plastic wrappings in order to preserve their nutrition for short periods until you use them. However, the best way is to use them early while fresh because, firstly, certain vegetables have very short period life and secondly, the heath benefiting qualities of a vegetable decline with time.

语篇解读夏季的蔬菜不仅新鲜而且营养丰富。本文介绍了卷心菜、胡萝卜及洋葱等蔬菜所包含的营养元素当然想要保持健康除了了解蔬菜的营养成分之外科学的饮食方法也十分重要。

9What does the author seem to like about tomatoes?

AThey contain chromium.

BThey are high in minerals.

CThey have a pleasant taste.

DThey can control insulin levels.

解析:C 细节理解题。根据第二段中的As for me, tomato, juicy and delicious, is a wonderful gift to the world.可知作者喜欢西红柿的美味。故选C项。

10Which of the followings is not the advantage of organic farm vegetables?

AHaving more vitamins and minerals.

BContaining more antioxidants.

CHaving smaller size.

DBeing delicious.

解析:C 细节理解题。根据第三段中的Organic ones tend to be smaller but have rich flavor, possess some good concentration of vitamins and minerals and are loaded with numerous health benefiting antioxidants.可知有机蔬菜的优势是味美、富含维生素和矿物质及抗氧化物大小不是其优势。故选C项。

11Which is the best choice about choosing vegetables?

AFresh and nutritious vegetables.

BDelicious and bigger vegetables.

CJuicy and smaller vegetables.

DSeasonal and organic vegetables.

解析:D 细节理解题。根据第三段中的Seasonal vegetables should be encouraged. Whenever possible, go for organic farm vegetables ...可知选择蔬菜要重点考虑应季有机这两个因素故选D项。

12From which is the text probably taken?

AA biology textbook.

BA health magazine.

CA research paper.

DA travel brochure.

解析:B 推理判断题。本文开头说明夏季的蔬菜新鲜、富有营养且多种多样,接下来又介绍了富有营养的若干蔬菜及科学的食用方法,由此可知,本文的话题是健康饮食,所以文章应该选自健康杂志。故选B项。


终审 :应玲
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