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主旨大意题——抽取主干细加工

来源: 发布时间:2020-10-20 浏览次数: 【字体:

主旨大意题是阅读理解中考生失分最多的题目因为该类试题不仅考查考生略读文章、领会大意的能力也对考生的归纳、概括能力提出了较高的要求。文章中没有明显的解题依据,需要考生从文章中提炼、抽取一些关键词、主干句进行加工概括,才能归纳出文章的主旨。此类题目可分为三大类,即标题归纳题、文章大意题和段落大意题。要做好主旨大意题,我们首先必须了解其正确选项和干扰选项的特征。

 

 

 

 

正确选项特征

干扰选项特征

1.涵盖性强覆盖全文或全段。

2.确定的范围恰当既不太大也不太小。

3.精确性强不会改变语言表意的程度及色彩。

1.过于笼统不知所云

所给选项内容概括的范围过大超出文章所述内容。

2.以偏概全主次不分

所给选项只阐述了文章的一部分内容或以文章中的细节信息或个别词作为选项的设置内容或以次要的事实或细节充当全文的主要观点。

3.移花接木偷换概念

所给选项被命题者有意识地把本属于A的内容放在B若不留神极易选错答案。

4.无中生有生搬硬套

所给选项的关键词语虽然在文章中谈到了,但经过仔细阅读分析之后,发现选项的内容与文章的内容毫无联系。

 

类型一 标题归纳题

()明考纲懂考查方式

[考纲解读]

该类题目要求考生在理解文章的基础上 结合文章的体裁和结构从所给选项选出适合文章的标题。注意最佳标题的特点:精准性强(不改变原文的意义和感情色彩);覆盖性强(能概括全文并体现文章的主旨)

[考查方式]

文章标题类常见的设题方式:

The best title of the passage is ________

Which of the following is the best title of the passage?

Which would be the best title for the passage?

()解题必备知能

1理解标题的3大特点

个好的标题应具备三大特点:

(1)概括性——准确而又简短;

(2)针对性——标题外延正好与文章内容相符;

(3)醒目性——能引发读者的阅读欲望。

2巧用3大方法确定文章标题

(1)正面肯定法:在理解文章主旨的基础上揣摩哪个选项能准确概括主旨;

(2)反面否定法:撇开原文拿各个备选项去设想用它们写出来的文章将是什么内容然后和原文章对照一一排除不符选项;

(3)研读备选项本身:研读备选项里面的中心词、修饰词的变化、结构、概括性等。

[] (2019·全国卷阅读B)

For Western designers, China and its rich culture have long been an inspiration for Western creative.

It's no secret that China has always been a source (来源) of inspiration for designerssays Amanda Hillchief creative officer at AE Networks, a global media company and home to some of the biggest fashion (时尚) shows.

Earlier this year, the China Through A Looking Glass exhibition in New York exhibited 140 pieces of China­inspired fashionable clothing alongside Chinese works of art, with the aim of exploring the influence of Chinese aesthetics (美学) on Western fashion and how China has fueled the fashionable imagination for centuries.The exhibition had record attendance, showing that there is huge interest in Chinese influences.

China is impossible to overlook, says Hill.Chinese models are the faces of beauty and fashion campaigns that sell dreams to women all over the world, which means Chinese women are not just consumers of fashion they are central to its movement.Of course, not only are today's top Western designers being influenced by China some of the best designers of contemporary fashion are themselves Chinese.Vera Wang, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu are taking_on Galliano, Albaz, Marc Jacobs and beating them hands down in design and sales,  adds Hill.

For Hill, it is impossible not to talk about China as the leading player when discussing fashion.The most famous designers are Chinese, so are the models, and so are the consumersshe says.China is no longer just another market; in many senses it has become the market.If you talk about fashion today, you are talking about China its influences, its direction, its breathtaking clothes, and how young designers and models are finally acknowledging that in many ways.

27What can be a suitable title for the text?

AYoung Models Selling Dreams to the World

BA Chinese Art Exhibition Held in New York

CDifferences Between Eastern and Western Aesthetics

DChinese Culture Fueling International Fashion Trends

[解题示范]

第一步:读文章概括文意

文章以国外视角报道中国文化及中国美学对国际时尚的影响展现了中国对国际时尚和设计发展的引领作用。

第二步:析选项斟酌判断

A

向世界推销梦想的年轻人

与文章内容不符。

无中生有

曲解文意

B

在纽约举办的一次中国艺术展

本文提到在纽约举办的一次中国艺术展但不是文章主要表达的含义。

以偏概全

主次不分

C

东西方美学的差异

本文主要讲述的是中国引领国际时尚和设计发展C项范围过大。

主题过大

范围太广

D

中国美学影响国际时尚的发展趋势

此标题全面、精炼地概括了文章内容。

涵盖性强

覆盖全文


终审 :应玲
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